Frequently Asked Questions
What sizes of brick are available to me?
The specific sizes depend on the colors and style you select; Modular, Utility and Norman size are typical but many other sizes are available on special order. Endicott Brick Sizes: Modular: 3 5/8 x 2 1/4 x 7 5/8 Engineer Modular: 3 5/8 x 2 13/16 x 7 5/8 Utility: 3 5/8 x 11 5/8 x 3 5/8 Hanson Brick Sizes: Metric Mod: 2 1/4 x 7 1/4 x 3 1/2 Imperial Mod: 2 /14 x 7 5/8 x 3 5/8 CSR: 2 3/4 x 9 1/16 x 3 1/2 Ontario: 2 3/8 x 8 3/8 x 4 Max: 3 1/8 x 10 1/8 x 3 1/2
What is efflorescence?
Efflorescence is a crystalline deposit of water-soluble salts on the surface of masonry. Although efflorescence is unsightly and a nuisance to remove, it is not harmful to masonry nor does it affect its structural integrity. For efflorescence to occur, a number of conditions are necessary; there must be a source of water into the masonry, there must be soluble salts within the masonry, and there must be a path for the water to get to the surface of the masonry and evaporate. Efflorescence may only occur occasionally (ie. after a wet spring snowfall) or it may be ongoing because of a bad flashing or deteriorated caulking which allows moisture into your masonry wall. Efflorescence is generally associated with wet weather but may also appear temporarily early life of a new building as the construction moisture in the mortar and materials evaporate. The source of the soluble salts may be from either the cement and/ or lime in the mortar, adjacent materials or occasionally the brick.
Can I prevent efflorescence?
Efflorescence can be avoided, or at least minimized, during construction by limiting the amount of moisture which can enter into the brick and/or masonry. Excess moisture in the brickwork increases the risk of efflorescence. During inclement weather, the brick cubes should be stored on skids, and covered with board. This will prevent the brick from getting saturated before installation. During construction, the top of all masonry walls and veneer must be covered at work stoppages, especially during inclement weather. The cover should extend a minimum of 2 feet (600mm) down both sides and should be held securely in place. Also avoid storm water runoff, from roofs and slabs above, onto the masonry. This precaution of covering masonry also applies to openings left in masonry during construction. Typical examples include: The brickwork below window sills, prior to the installation of the windows and sills Tops of parapet walls, prior to the installation of a cap The horizontal movement joint below shelf angles, prior to caulking These openings are generally addressed by another trade, but due to trade scheduling are sometimes left open for a period of time. These openings are ready entry points for water and can result in extensive efflorescence. In these cases, the top of the exposed brickwork should be suitably covered, as described above.
How can I get rid of efflorescence?
First try washing the stone or brick with hot soapy water or a vinegar solution. If that does not work please consult Fraser Powell at Cast Supply and he will advise which kinds of chemicals are available to you.
Imperial vs Metric?
Modular Brick - Length x Height x Width Imperial Modular 7 5/8" x 2 1/4" x 3 5/8" Converted 194mm x 57mm x 92mm Metric Modular 190mm x 57mm x 90mm Converted 7 1/2" x 2 1/4" x 3 1/2" Closure Brick - Length x Height x Width Imperial Closure 7 5/8" x 3 5/8" x 3 5/8" Converted 194mm x 92mm x 92mm Metric Closure 190mm x 90mm x 90mm Converted 7 1/2" x 3 1/2" x 3 1/2" King Brick - Length x Height x Width Imperial King 9 5/8" x 2 5/8" x 2 7/8" Converted 244mm x 67mm x 73mm Imperial Engineered King 9 5/8" x 2 13/16" x 2 7/8" Converted 244mm x 71mm x 73mm Metric King 240mm x 70mm x 80mm Converted 9 1/2" x 2 3/4" x 3 1/8" Norman Brick - Length x Height x Width Imperial Norman 11 5/8" x 2 1/4" x 3 5/8" Converted 295mm x 57mm x 92mm Imperial Engineered Norman 11 5/8" x 2 13/16" x 3 5/8" Converted 295mm x 71mm x 92mm Metric Norman 290mm x 57mm x 90mm Converted 11 1/2" x 2 1/4" x 3 1/2" Metric Engineer Norman 290mm x 70mm x 90mm Converted 11 2/2" x 2 3/4" x 2 1/2" Utility Brick - Length x Height x Width Imperial Utility 11 5/8" x 3 5/8" x 3 5/8" Converted 295mm x 92mm x 92mm Metric Jumbo 290mm x 90mm x 90mm Converted 11 7/16" x 3 1/2" x 3 1/2" Giant Brick - Length x Height x Width Imperial Giant 15 5/8" x 3 5/8" x 3 5/8" Converted 397mm x 92mm x 92mm Imperial Modular Giant 15 5/8" x 2 1/4" x 3 5/8" Converted 397mm x 57mm x 92mm Metric Giant 390mm x 90mm x 90mm Converted 15 3/8" x 3 1/2" x 3 1/2" Manufacturers produce bricks to their own specifications, so it is important to confirm sizes. Actual Size, also referred to as Specified Size, is the real dimension of each brick. Nominal size is the actual size plus the width of the mortar joint. Most bricks are manufactured so that the nominal sizes fit into a grid of 4", which coincides with the modules of other building materials such as doors, windows, and wood components.